Recently I have been learning to write programs in C. Hopefully I can provide an update and make a post specific to that in the future. In my research, I found a helpful forum post about the development process for C. I think this could apply to all languages and problem solving in general. He takes a fairly simple program and uses that as an example for building out a small script.
Before you can get going you have to know what you are working on. Analyse the problem and parse up the workload. Break down the problem into steps! First, is to create the skeleton, or environment in which you will work in. Next is to build out each requirement and test individually. Try to break each implementation to add error exceptions. After all modules are in place, refactor what you wrote for readability and scale. Lastly is to read over the code and add comments where necessary.
This process is great in that it can be used on a micro or macro level in terms of solving any kind of problem. We all do this in some form or fashion already, and I believe that skipping steps is how we waste a lot of time.